RESEARCH RESULT SUMMARY NYANGAHATN (Farming Traditional Ceremony of Dayak Kanayatn in West Kalimantan)

By: Yohanes Supriyadi

Research Problems
This research in focused on three aspect; they are: (1) how is the Systematization of of Nyangahatn, (2) what are the meanings found in Nyangahatn (through oral structure analysis, that are language and literary elements, and ather element such as aquipments and attitude, and, (3) what are the functions of Nyangahatn. The research is restricted on Nyangahatn Baburukng, that is Nyangahatnb with the purposes ti ask guidance/signs to Jubata usually in the form of sounds of birds called Rasi, as the guidance to determine which kind of land are to be cultivated: Motothn (high land/mountains) papuk Tawakng (wet lend) or Gente’ (flat land).

Research Purposes:
Based on the problems, the research has the following purposes: (1) to describe the composition.systematization of the display of Nyangahatn, (2) to discover the meanings/perception found in Nyangahatn, and (3) to discover any function found in Nyangahatn.

Research methodology
Thi research applies qualitative approach, particularly qualitative paradigm, that the truth abtained by the research according to research object is only valid for the research object itself.

* Financed by Project of Human Resources Advancement with the letter of Research
Implemantation agreemant, No: 029/LIT/BPPK-SDM/2002 April 9, 2002.

** Lecturers of Indonesian Language and Traditional Literature Departement.

Analyzing process:
Reconstructing Nyangahatn composition through formulating the whole paragraph to make material in composing Nyangahatn. To analyze language structure (language features), literary structure (the aim, background, and characters) to discover the meaning (implicit idea).
To analyze the functions, that is theoritical analysis as an effort to link the meaning of Nyangahatn woith the effect or role of Nyangahatn in siciety. To make a cross-check on the interpretation result with the secondary data from other sources such as anfluencial traditional figures in the community in which Nyangahatn in being abserbed.
Revising the result of analysis.

Data and Data Source
The research data are classified into two, they are, primary data, consisting of Nyangahatn quotations and equipment elements and the attitude of Panyangahatn connecting with composition case, meaning and function; and secondary data in the form of Panyangahatn’s opnions/view and of other traditional figures in the research location. Consequently, the research sourcre s are also devided in two, they are, primary data source, consisting of Nyangahatn texts which have been transcribed into written form, and traditional figures (besides Panyangahatn) whose informations functions as complement and comparison.
The primary data source of the research is taken from: Direct recording and observation on Nyangahatn Baburukng in Konyo Village, Menjalin Sub District, landak District, on June 12, 2002, with Pak Apiu as the Panyangahatn. The Documents about farming tradition of Dayak Kanayatn Binua Kaca’, Menjalin Sub-district, Pontianak District, West Kalimantan, writen by H. Bahari Sinju, C.S, 1996, particularly those concerning with equipments or offerings in Nyangahatn

Deskription of Nyangahatn Composition
The composition of Nyangahatn Baburukng (phases and aim) After being analyzed by describing the theme of each paragraph and classifying the whole theme, the composition obtained is as follows:
Nyimpado/calling and telling Jubata that the peolple will do the farming activities.
Contens :
Offering Buis Bantatn (offerings)
Calling Jubata with Penekng Unyit Mata Baras (Matik) to ask for blessing and protection
Asking for rice to Jubata
Nyasah banih (washing the seeds)
Calling Jubata
Ngalangir (oiling the seeds)
Oiling Buat Tangah
Washing hand of Jubata
Mibis (To loose/to wash something with power symbolized by chicken’s wings)
Washing the area, washing away plant disease
Throwing away all disease and disaster sources by planting them at sunset direction with the power symbolized by chicken’s wing and the wind.
Ngadap Buis
Telling that the people are gathering to ask Jubata to raise rice.
Asking for signs through sounds of birds
Asking for rice spirit, good day for farming, abundant crops and diseaseprevention. To offer offerings together (simbolizing faithful. Religious activity) Ngaripng ngarima’i (worshiping God by mentioning Jubata according ti His identity, usually by following geographic kinds or forms. To cast a spell over sticky rice, lime and turmeric (so that, hopefully, life will be as soft as sticky rice, and being cool/quiet, as being symbolized by turmeric and lime). Nampukng Tawar (disinfecting,/sanctifying process) upon seeds, people and oneself/the priest. Nyasah (washing) Hand of Jubata and the offerings. Asking for blessing. Worshiping Jubata by mentioning His titles and roles.
Close: Restating all irational powers with the intention to ask for help from all powers in misterious/irrational nature by mentioning the names and submitting the share/offering to all irrational powers: Jubata (positive power), spirits of dead persons, devils, birds sound, poisonous beasts, fire (sijaler) , plant pest, and area – rulling Jubata.

The phases of Matik, Ngalantek and Mibis are called Nyangahatn manta’ (row Nyangahatn). Ngadap Buis phase is called Nyangahatn Masak (done Nyangahatn).

The composition of Nyangahatn resembles other rethorical forms, such as speech or talk, consisting of introductions, content and close. However, if we compare Nyangahatn to oral prayers which are usually said spontaneously in everiday activity, among christian society, for example, Nyangahatn composition is obviously more complet. This comparison is possible because Nyangahatn, if it is seen from certain point of vieuw, can be identified with prayer, that is as a traditional religious espression towards the ruler of the universe. In everiday prayer, composition of the prayer is not very complicated, because the prayer can be said at any time, withaut following certain standard and it does not use manykinds of offerings. While in Nyangahatn, there are many rules, especially in the phases an a set of offerings which must be followed and prepared. This makes the composition of Nyangahatn is more coplete than that of spontaneous prayer, and it tends to be standardized.

From the language aspect, Nyangahatn structure is dominated by the use of motive in the form of words, especially the words: Jubata, Kita’, sapati, Au’ Ian, kade’, koa, and phrasing motive in the form: Asa’ Dua’ talu apat lima anam tujuh..... Another characteristic is the use of repetitions, in words as well as in phrases, idiomatic forms, and a few form of pouse or infisinshed forms.

As it has been mentioned in literature review, Nyangahatn has four phases, they are: Matik (anouncement), Ngalantek (inviting Jubata), Mipis (destroyingevery disease and fly it away towards sunset) and, Ngadap Buis (to offer to Jubata to eat the offerings thet have been done). Although it is devided into four phases, nbot every phase has introduction and close. Mipis has conten only. Only Ngadap Buis which has introduction, content, and close.

With such compisition, if the four phase are seen as a unity, Nyangahatn Baburukng has a good composition since it is started with introduction (in Matik) and ended with a close (in Ngadap Buis phase). This indicates that, although the aims and offering material are different, basically the four phases make a unity of spell, with the main purpose in to listen to natural sounds as the signs (generally) in the form of bird sounds, as a guidance in choosing which land area is suitable to be ciltuvated for farming: Mountains/hills, flat land or wet land.

Nyangahatn has a complete compisition, it has Introduction, content, and close.
Although, theoritically Nyangahatn consists of four phases: Matik Ngalantek, Mibis, and Ngadap Buis, more obvious difference is in the phase between Nyangahatn with raw offerings (Matik, Ngalantek, and Mibis), and Nyangahatn with done offerings (Ngadap Buis).
From the language side, Nyangahatn structure is dominated by the use of mitoves in the form of word, especially by words: Jubata, Kita’, sapati, au’, ian, kade’, koa, and expression motive in the form of phrase: Asa’ dua’ talu ampat lima anam tujuh. Another characteristic is the use of repetition, in words and phrases as well, idiomatic forms and a few fdorms of pause or infinished forms. While from the literary aspect, Nyangahatn in dominated by the figure of Jubata and other supernatural firgures (those who are considered to have supernatural power above common human beings), and the setting of place connecting with natural phenomena or kaind of extraordinary geographic area, the ooriginal creation Iwhich has been existing and has never changed), and imaginary places (existing only in imagination).

Tehe meanings of Nyangahatn, among there are:
The Dayak community believe that their life depends very much on Jubata and veious kinds of powers of Misterious world. Therefore, the relationship with supernatural world, espescially with Jubata needs to be always maintained and revised. Goodnes in life primarly depends on Jubata as positive power (never causingdisaster). Therefore total service and submission of the Dayak community must be offered to Jubata. The equipments in Nyangahatn implicitly express faith, submission, genuine service toward Jubata. As a powers of place for submission and service of human beings, Jubata has a high and respectful position. But at the same time, Jubata is also very close to human beings. This is reflected from the equipments which have the power of Jubata given to human beings, such as Baras Kuning (yellow rice), Baras Sasah ( washd rice) and langir oil. Withaut these three things suymbolize the presence and the power of Jubata. The whole world surface/real world is considered to have spirit/soul, as it is believed to be the representation of the Creator Himself, that is Jubata.

According to the Dayaks, real world is a small world covering only the family members. The biggest and respected world is the world of mysterious nature. Jubata is the respected power, but at the same time He is very close to human beings, so human being (Panyangahatn) is given authority to carry out Jubata’s power through the media, such as baras Kuning, Baras sasah, and Langir oil, functioning to dismiss the danger, or as barricade, washing off every dirty thing and as a neutralizer.

Beside having sacred velue, Nyangahatn Baburukng also means that the Dayak community consideres solidarity and consolation velue need to exist and to be maintained in social life.
Nyangahatn Baburukng among others, has the following functions:
As a medium to transfer and to maintain the tradition.
As a medium to maintain spiritual life
As a medium to maintain solifarity spirit
As a medium to coordinate and to guarantee social life, particularly annual or farming activities.

Because this research only discovers one phase of Nyangahatn among about 18 phases of Nyangahatn in ferming circulation, it will be better if another research can reach all Nyangahatn in the whole farming circulation. Because the tradition of Nyangahatn still survive and more ever it is needful among non-Dayak community, it must be paid attention to by various groups of researchers and those who love original traditions which still exist in West Kalimantan.

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