Learning the Facilitation of Non-Violence and Gender Education to Adolescents and Children in West Kalimantan

By Yohanes Supriyadi

Adolescents age 13-19 in West Kalimantan currently grow up in confusing and confounding times with the existence of ever-present changes in the social and political sphere, and accompanied by violence and hardships in various degrees. All the while these youth are reaching and moving through a critical developmental age, where an understanding of their social relationships begin to emerge and become more clearly cognitively differentiated. That is, relationships and identification with themselves and others – people of different social, religious, economic, and/or political identity from their own, begin to become actualized.
Coupled with the changes quickly moving in the area of political and social governance, and the current embracive flow of globalization, at the local level the youths’ lives are affected daily in historically unprecedented ways through various communication and information networks—namely, internet, film, television, and popular music. As is generally agreed upon by researchers, exhibitions of social violence through mass media outlets such as television, film and internet, as well as acts of family and community violence become traumatic experiences, particularly within the development of children and adolescents.
The perpetuation of conflict-fertile conditions in West Kalimantan communities is can be understood in part as being connected to the current legislation and guidelines governing the education system in Indonesia. Such structures are seemingly not at all based upon an education which concerns local values. School curricula tend to be self-constrained to teaching within a system based primarily upon modern science in the narrow sense, while culturally-emergent local knowledge and values, though they inherently embody respect for personal and inter-personal histories, are not touched upon at all. Changes which are received from the classroom surfaces a terrible confusion of identity in adolescents. Consequences felt from this confusion include degradation of morale and alienation from their cultural roots. Much of their ‘basic colour’, their becoming of themselves, are not incorporative of the values of local wisdom, traditions and customs, further contributing to an accelerated erosion of local adat culture and society.
Within the last 3 years, community programs in historical or potential conflict areas in West Kalimantan have largely focused solely upon the relational exchange between members of adult communities. Meanwhile children and teenagers have yet to be directly given their deserved recognition as significant actors in the creation of a sustainably peaceful culture. Avenues specifically intended to reach their developmental needs and capacities have rarely been presented to them, through which how to appreciate, understand, and live cooperatively with members of other communities can be realized. That is, how to co-dependently foster a culture of acceptance, peace, and understanding. Such encouragement is often in reciprocal form, where behaviours based on avoidance, on distrustfulness are acquired both directly and indirectly from parents, peers, community figures and previously mentioned media inputs.
The core of this project is based upon the understanding that adolescents and children, the younger, blooming generation, represent a most significant role and seldom-accessed potential in the process of transforming conflict beyond acts of violence and discrimination, towards a culture of sustained peaceful co-existence in the communities of West Kalimantan.

When interest among community is being bumped to other stakeholder, customary law, negotiation and peace struggle are attempted to take, and if not, then the bump might be accepted fatalistic. If the peace struggle does not succeed or get proper response, the struggle is then made through violence acts, mainly the ones relating to basic issues like access to land, forest and other resources that becoming the most important part for the existence of indigenous. Ironically, when indigenous make violence act, their demand is more frequently achieved compared to act made in peace way and negotiation.
The condition then encourages people to more choose violence as media to overcome every single trouble they face. Thus, cultural violence is more escalated in present time followed by a glued symbol as of “Kalimantan headhunter” to manifesting frustration that is failed to understand by ruling government, or the government has got wrong response of the condition.
Children and teenagers are taught systematic, dynamic and logic way of thinking. The way of thinking should be developed towards improvement. The way of thinking is aware that there are many aspects within one situation, able to view in various viewpoints, able to think abstract to see cause and effect of some cases.
YPPN argues that various efforts to avoid violence act in pluralistic West Kalimantan will fail or useless if they are not started from anti-violence education since the children are still in the young age. What is hoped from children anti-violence education is that they learn to solve small and real problem without violence acts, and when they grow up they will be able to solve bigger and more abstract problem happening in the community.
In brief, the idea of this program is based on the consideration that the children may be able to learn and participate in completing violence act and discrimination in the community by internalizing local values donated to the realization of more peaceful West Kalimantan in the future.

There are some serious gender inequality issues may be taken for education sources for young people. In the family, for instance. In the country, there is a rotation of role, from men to women. The life is burdened to women in the country. They work from morning to evening. A housewoman should take care their children, their family, and should also work outside the house to join mutual- working group in the farming. Going home from farming they should bring firewood, vegetables, etc. As wife, they should still also serve their husband sexual need. Arriving home, they should do cooking, cleaning and caring for baby.
In other social dimension, it is quite rare for women to come to the surface. It is difficult to find a woman in social organization who is able to lead or chair certain position. They cannot actively involve and are not able to make decision/policy for the organization. Heavy burden that is burdened to women has impact to their daughter. To avoid the burden like their mother has, and for economic reason, they decide to go to city (urban) to act as housemaid or to Malaysia as migrant worker. For those who possess good education, it is good luck for them to have proper job. But for those who are uneducated, they are mostly trapped or set in to women trafficking agent syndicate, or being prostituted in the night clubs.
The situation of women role is worse since customary law is not pro to them, mainly on the issues of women right that is not equal to men. Some gender issues in the country need further serious studies. Solution frame should be aimed to eliminate those phenomena, thus appreciated, respected, supported and empowered community within Dayak indigenous may be created.
Appreciated, respected, supported and empowered gender equality between women and men is hoped to happen in dimension of politic, economy and culture in family (micro) and community (macro). Under this situation, it is also hoped that one community social life may be created without discrimination, marginalization, subordination, doubled-burden violence, and other unfairness against women. Ideally, there must be an equality between women and men that is providing equal chances to grow and develop optimum, sustained, free and responsible.
In daily life, the concept is not fulfilled yet. Some type of violence, harassment, discrimination, marginalization, exploitation and other type of women right abuses are frequently appeared. It seems that women destiny is created to live, grow and develop under domination of men. At last, one stereotype of women is created, that women are weak, passive, dependent, not assertive, incompetent in whole aspect of life, except as housewives relating to children caring and cooking, meanwhile, men are put in the higher status to rule and control their wives.
In the perspective of gender inequality, there are some factors that cause inequality. Mainly, is culture. Culturally, community judges that the position of women is lower than men. Even in some fundamentalist community, women are not given a chance to grow and develop equal to men. Based on the cultural marginalization, then every woman is marginalized from all aspect of life. The situation is important for the young people to learn to avoid the same practices made by the old generation that do not care for gender fairness.

1. Conflict and wrong inheritance of old view
Man has always learnt from their generation (Bosco: 2003). The fact shows that old generation hurts because of violence conflicts. Since 1960s, West Kalimantan has always been treated by ethnic conflicts. In the conflict, some parents become the sympathies or pro conflict, peacemaker agent or even involved within the conflict. There is one idea says that the difference is negative. For that idea, difference is taken for bad thing and should be avoided. In context of religious and ethnic relation, the children are taught to avoid relation with other different religious and ethnic. This situation then develops to becoming a faith to children and teenagers that difference are not good and must be taken far away. Through advocacy, the children and teenagers are taught to able to see the differences and believe that they are God’s giving and that men are created different. And for that reason, the people should live co-existent with other people. To reach this teaching, discussions, self-development training, dialogues training, jamboree, children networking, correspondence and library will be facilitated.

2. Lost of life principle
In the past time, the people ruled their lives based on customary therefore everything lasted smooth and life of personal and communal were guaranteed. The core of customary is that life principle trusted in are convinced and enforced together; leadership, regulation, economic opportunity share, social welfare service and religious belief are represented through customary ceremonies (Krist Atok: 2002). In daily life parents taught their children to participate in social life and life values gradually (through initiatives and informal education in families). In 1980s, when industry revolution came to Indonesia, community life has been colored by the existence of technology like TV, internet, magazine and newspaper. By the rapid change, children and teenagers lose their principle of life because of the influences of communication or information technology. Gambling, drugs, karaoke, and motorcycle robbery are some other examples of the change’s impact. By the showing of violence action on TV, children and teenagers perceive that the only one way to solve conflict is by executing violence action. The rapid change creates strain and stress for the young people meanwhile “new customary” (life principle) convinced and enforced together are not yet found. It is hoped that through the attempts made, the young people more realize that they at least still have life principle (customary), dignity, self-confidence to solve every conflict with peaceful way and anti violence. The attempts will be executed through open-spaced discussions, self-development training, dialogues training, jamboree, children networking, correspondence and library facilitation.
3. Centralized education system
Education in Indonesia is made uniform system. The centralized process has always ignored regional diversity, ethnic and culture. In the school, the teaching should always fit with national curriculum meanwhile local values or life principle is avoided. Social values to strengthen moral for the children or teenagers are not taught seriously. Intelligent or smart students but they have low quality of dignity may have lower mark. Meanwhile, the students who have average intelligence but they have good quality of dignity may succeed their education. Low quality dignity students tend to have less satisfaction from school then they easily lose their motivation and interest. Consequently, school achievement is lower and quality of dignity is lower, too. Besides that, lower dignity students are sometimes aggressive or disconnect their personal relationship with others. To compensate that, the children tend to act rough and may lead to violent act.
4. Family social-economic situation
Since that government policy is centralized, there is a fact that the new comer citizen in Kalimantan is more benefit economically. In the market, local indigenous merchant do their trading without kiosk, meanwhile non-indigenous possess ones. The difference may easily raise jealousy or hatred although the non-indigenous actually want to keep hospitality by the same time they afford their lives since it is also their right. The difference of social-life status is easily linked to the difference of ethnic, religion, political view, and languages. Economic different is sensitive because it deals with basic need interest. If the fulfillment of this basic need is treated, thus emotional reaction may also easily raise up. Good willing for tolerance, respectful and peaceful may be elaborated, but they will forget the good willing if their basic need fulfillment is treated.

By the situation of economic lacking in the family, the children and teenagers are becoming the back-up for the family. Teenagers, mainly girls, are also responded for family economic fulfillment. Consequently, they are difficult to have relation with other. They become ashamed, no self-confident, and finally may lose their dignity in front of other. They tend to be introvert and behave to take everything as it is. This situation makes female-teenagers easily to be coming victim of violence in family and in environment. Teenager has always taken a lot role in the family. They go to farming field and cook in kitchen. There is a description that boy teenagers are free to make their relation with other meanwhile making relationship with other will be taboo for girl teenagers. For instance, if it is found that there is a girl teenagers gathering (making relationship) among boys teenager, the community will judge wrong for the girl. So, it would be difficult for the girls to make relation among teenagers. Since that female has tender feeling (Bosco: 2003), thus they would be potential to develop peace in community. Peace is always started from tender feeling, and it can be found in females.
Through this program, it is hoped that there would be involvement from female teenagers to change the hard attitude of men and develop attitude of peace and tenderly in daily life. Children and females/girls teenagers are hoped to gradually be active in community activities, among teenagers, and religious social organization. By actively involving, females teenager may start to open to relate themselves and more strengthening dignity, self-confident, motivated and creative to develop interest through art/dance, vocal-group, discussion and handy-craft activities.

0 komentar:

Design by Free WordPress Themes | Bloggerized by Lasantha - Premium Blogger Themes | JCpenney Printable Coupons